Determination of metals in human urine

Determination of metals in human urine

Quantitative determination of metals in human urine by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

The National Anti-Doping Laboratory conducts determination of metals (cobalt, copper, cadmium, manganese, zinc) in human urine by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

Preparation for the test

In this method the analyte is morning urine. In some cases, according to the referral of a doctor, the daily volume of urine is collected. For example, for determination of copper in Wilson-Konovalov disease.

For urine collection a clean, dry bottle (beaker/container) without preservative with a screw cap, with a nominal capacity of at least 100 ml, or a container for collecting daily urine is used.

In order to comply with the preanalytical stage when collecting a biological sample, it is necessary:

  • exclude alcohol at least 24 hours prior to taking biological material;
  • exclude the use of diuretic drugs not less than 48 hours before the collection of urine (in consultation with a doctor).

Biological material prior to transfer to the Laboratory should be stored (transported) in a refrigerator at a temperature of + 2 °C to + 4 °C in sealed form (sealed only when collected by other establishments of health) for no more than 5 (five) days. In order to avoid incorrect results due to the violation of temperature regimes, it is recommended to conduct the collection of biological material in the Laboratory.

Biological samples are delivered to the laboratory test in a sealed container (for establishments of health), which excludes the possibility of mechanical damage of the bottles with biological samples, with observance of the temperature conditions of biological samples (at temperatures from + 2 °C to + 4 °С). Delivery of biological samples from establishments of health to the laboratory test should be carried out no later than 5 days from the date of collection.

Rules for collecting daily urine

The recommendations were developed according to the “Methodological recommendations on laboratory tests for medical students, attending doctors, staff of treatment rooms and clinical diagnostic laboratories.”

  1. Prepare a container for collecting daily urine.
  2. Follow the instructions of your doctor regarding food, beverages or medication before and during a collection of daily urine.
  3. Conduct thorough hygiene of the genitals before each collection of urine.
  4. After morning getting up completely empty the bladder into the toilet and mark this time.
  5. Each urination should be done in a clean, dry vessel and then urine should be carefully poured into a container to collect daily urine. All urine collected during the day and night over the next 24 hours should be placed in a container. You cannot urinate directly into the container for collecting daily urine.
  6. A container for daily urine should be stored in a refrigerator at a temperature of + 2 °С - +4 °С.
  7. Perform a last urine collection next morning after the start at approximately same time and mark the end time.

Schedule of taking biological material

Biological material is taking from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. from Monday to Friday. Material can be collected independently if storage and transportation conditions are observed. The test time is 10 working days from the day of sample reception and contract conclusion.

Factors that may influence a result

  • The use of vitamin-mineral complexes, dietary supplements and herbal preparations a week before taking the biomaterial, which contains a target element.
  • Pregnancy.
  • The use of drugs containing carbamazepine, phenobarbital, estrogens, as well as oral contraceptives.

Non-compliance with the recommendations can significantly affect the analysis result.

For individuals it is necessary to have a passport or other identity document.


 The decision rule for conformity assessment